Effect of Particulate Matter (PM)

Effect of Particulate Matter (PM)

Partikül Madde Zararları
Effects Of Particulate Matter (Pm)

Due to the increasing air pollution in our world, the effect of particles on human health has begun to be studied more comprehensively. As a result, Particulate Matter (PM) has emerged that fine dust creates a serious health hazard, causing respiratory diseases and cancer, and has become the agenda.

Particules Fall Chart

Particles larger than 10 µm in the atmosphere precipitate very quickly and can only hang in the air near their source and with strong winds.

In a room without air flow, the falling rates of the particles occur as in the graph.

Dimensions of Fume and Dust Generated in the Industry

Most particles larger than 10 µm in diameter are visible to the naked eye with the appropriate angle of light and contrast. Under normal conditions, our eyes can see particles of 30 µm and above.

Particles Size Chart
Particles Size Chart
  • The first image on the graph is approximately 500 μm
  • The thickness of human hair is 100 μm
  • The smallest particle that can be seen by naked eye >10 μm
  • Particles harmful to human health <5 μm
  • Coarse dusts generated from industrial applications >10 μm
  • Fine dusts generated from industrial applications <10 μm
  • Welding fume <1 μm ( 0,2 – 0,8 μm )
1 µm = 1/1000mm

Pm For Welder Health

Particulate Matter size chart of substance pollutant values:

  • 5 µm ~ 10 µm Larger particles in the 5 µm-10 µm range are separated and retained by the upper respiratory tract. From here, it is quickly swallowed or easily expelled by coughing.
  • 2,5 µm ~ 5 µm Particles in the range of 2.5 µm-5 µm are most likely to be retained in human lungs and are sent back to the upper respiratory system without going deep into the lungs.
  • 1 µm ~ 2,5 µm Particles in the range of 1 µm-2.5 µm are retained in the bronchi and cause risks to human health.
  • 1 µm Particles in the range of 1 µm and below are small enough to pass through the cell membranes of the alveoli and mix into the blood stream.

Read our another blog post to learn more about Importance and Advantages of Using Filters in Fume Extraction Systems

Why ISO16890 standard is needed instead of EN779?

Ashrae Test Dust
Ashrae Test Dust. Image Source: Testdust.dmt-Group.com

Over the years, professionals in the field have advocated for an enhanced benchmark to substitute EN 779. Detractors of this benchmark highlight its exceedingly impractical testing circumstances and results of restricted applicability to real-world effectiveness. ISO 16890 introduces laboratory assessment procedures that emulate actual operating conditions more realistically, departing from the traditional standard’s filter categories G1-F9 to adopt a classification system centered on particulate groups PM1, PM2.5, and PM10. The World Health Organization employs these identical particulate categories in assessing environmental air quality.

According to the EN779:2012 standard, a synthetic dust known as ASHRAE is used for efficiency test of an air filter.

The test is performed by loading the filter with this dust in the laboratory environment and the evaluation is made by calculating the efficiency value of only 0.4 µm particle size.

An Example of Filter Used in Operating Conditions

Particulate Matter Size Calculator

How to Calculate Particulate Matter Damages?

In operating conditions, filters are exposed to pollutants in a different particle size range. Therefore, these values obtained in the laboratory environment are insufficient to determine the performance of an air filter.

For that reason, with ISO16890 standard, filter users will have the opportunity to choose the filter much more precisely suitable for their needs.

The ISO16890 standard, unlike the EN779 standard, calculates the particle size in the range of 0.3 µm -10 µm for efficiency evaluation.

(Particulate Matter = PM)

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